Anime News Service is running a penetrating feature article on the adaptation of videogame mechanics into anime television shows. “Log Horizon, Undertale, and the Tale Game Mechanics Can Tell” details how game mechanics can convey meaning, and delves into how the anime adaptations dive deep into themes of the plurality of perspectives, gray morality, and human rights issues inherent in game play mechanics and tropes we all take for granted. The author’s and the adaptors’ themes intersect with Associate Professor Whitney Pow‘s analysis on the colonialism inherent in gameplay (mentioned in her 2020 Magfest presentation on The Glitch: Queer and Transgender Software History based off of an article of hers published in game history journal RomChip.)
One of the most anticipated shojou/josei animes coming out this spring is an adaption of “The Saint’s Magic Power is Omnipotent.” Per the manga cover (released by Seven Seas) the story follows 20-something, workaholic Sei as she adapts to living in a new magical world after being (accidentally?) summoned to be a savior “saint.” Sei is dismissed as a spare by the eldest prince of the magic world, since a younger, innocent ingenue girl was also summoned during the same ritual.
The readers follow Sei as she processes her new situation. From the first pages, Sei describes herself as someone who works very hard at her job, to the point of exhaustion. After sleeping for two weeks as a guest in a castle, she wanders into a new area that is the Medicinal Flora Research Institute where she eventually becomes an employee. Even though her new employment does not demand it of her Sei continues with her M.O. of overworking and needing to prove herself through her productivity. For example, even though for the first 2 weeks of her residence in the new world, she is a guest in the palace, waited on hand and foot by servants and put up in a plush bedroom, when she starts her “job” as a researcher, she says she’s “gotta work work if [she] wants to eat.” There is a dichotomy of expectations presented – the ones expressed by the locals who feel honored by her presence and welcome her to simply be in the palace (or as a token employee of the Research Institute), versus her expectations of herself, which is stated that she must work to eat and must contribute productivity to “earn her spot.” We see Sei’s self definition come from her work: After she makes her first potion, she states “That’s how I came to live here…not only as a medicinal flora researcher but as an inhabitant of [the] world.”
With a light and fluffy isekai (read: magical world) framework, this story taps into and addresses a deeper transnational psychological trend, what is commonly known in the US as Imposter Phenonmenon (aka Imposter Syndrome). This phenomenon was coined in research in the 1970s on high-acheiveing women, but gained larger societal awareness as a buzzword in the 2010s. It is defined loosely as “doubting your abilities and thinking you are a fraud” (HBR) and “experience of feeling like a phony—you feel as though at any moment you are going to be found out as a fraud—like you don’t belong where you are, and you only got there through dumb luck. (VeryWellMind).
This manga answers the questions that imposter syndrome poses, and the reader watches as Sei’s journey to accept herself and her impressive abilities improves her health and makes her stronger. This content and the light-heartedness and entertaining way it is communicated positions it to be relatable to audiences anywhere there is imposter syndrome, but for countries where that term is not used, anywhere where women are entering fields and achieving leadership in fields that are male-dominated.
This leads to the drawback of the manga: As a comic, it would be targeted to teenage girls, but imposter syndrome is largely a college-age and employment-related phenomenon. To better fit a younger demographic, adaptation would need to highlight the some root symptoms of Imposter Phenomenon: the need to overachieve, the inability to recognize one’s own talents and skills, unrealistic expectations.
On the whole, if executed well, the anime version stands a decent chance to garner international commercial success, and I’ll be interested to see how the production studios smooth over some of the rough edges of the light novel/manga (namely, pacing issues, some awkward word choices, and plot holes) and highlight the deeper emotional development of the protagonist to draw in and relate to the audience.
For those who are familiar with Japanese demographics, Saint’s Power is a shojou manga that deals with josei issues.
For my fellow American otaku, if you liked “Boys over Flowers” (“Hana Yori Dango”) or “(Kaicho wa) Maid Sama” you’ll enjoy Saint’s Power, even though its set in a magical world and not a high school.
For European manga-fans, if you liked “Kimi wa Petto” you’ll enjoy Saint’s Power, which has a little less romance at the onset.
Trigger warning: This article discusses violence, particularly that against People of Color, and electroshock torture. These are depicted in the game, which has a rating of “E for everyone10 years old and older.”
Welcome to the Ministry of Magic! You, the player in the mobile phone game Wizards Unite, have been enlisted to help the Ministry of Magic as a Great Calamity has befallen the wizarding world. According to Niantic, the game designers, this “Calamity” is a series of magical wrinkles causing memories and people to be pulled from the past and inserted helter-skelter into the present. However, the bigger Calamity is that Niantic’s augmented reality game design and narrative framework teaches its primary audience — white, urban players — to view People of Color as useless victims or horrific aggressors. The game also objectifies People of Color, devalues cross-racial dialogue, ignores de-escalation practices, and normalizes and rewards the primary way of interacting with People of Color as being at the point of a weapon. I mean, wand.
Violence Against People of Color in the Game
The main gameplay in Wizards Unite revolves around Foundables and Confoundables. All depictions of People of Color in Wizards Unite are Foundable/Confoundable characters who have no lines. Foundable/Confoundable interactions pop up on the map at random intervals, loosely tied to the amount of cellphone traffic present at a location. These scenes are on repeat loops, and, over and over, you will rescue the same memory-mooncalf (Foundable), help young memory-Harry Potter (Foundable) by casting ridikkulous on a memory-dementor (Confoundable), dispel the memory-howler (Confoundable) harassing the two goblins (Foundables).
When People of Color are characterized as Confoundables of Color, the result is the teaching of violent, racist behavior. There are two portrayals of People of Color as Confoundables that are particularly problematic: an Indian-presenting Ministry Official and an African American Ministry Official. The Indian-presenting Confoundable is the most ubiquitous character in the game yet has no lines nor a name. There is much to unpack here: the cultural and historical significance of un-naming a Person of Color, the assumption that a Person of Color is a subservient worker, the scene repeated over and over depicting an “angry, dark-skinned man.” For brevity’s sake, however, we’ll focus on the more egregious portrayal of a Person of Color: the African American Ministry Official who is wearing a white doctor’s coat.
his character is an African-American female character from the film Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find them, in which she has three short lines. In the game, she is more deadly than Death Eaters and more violent than Voldemort. (The former throws sparks that stun the player, and the latter merely looms threateningly.) Her level of violence far outstrips any other presented in the gameplay. Over and over, she physically and mentally tortures the Foundables she is with by attacking their heads with electric, white spell energy. The Foundable victims look dazed, uneasy, and hurt as they try to resist her spell. (Players who have seen the movies know to be forcibly taking a memory from someone’s mind. Wizards Unite’s violent rendition of such a spell brings new, visual meaning to the term “mind rape.”)
In Wizards Unite, this unnamed medical Ministry Official attacks two white, male characters using this method. In the film, however, she gently removes a memory from Tina Goldstein (who does not make an appearance in the game). Niantic chose to have Bernadette (named in the film, not in the game) to interact with Newt Scamander and Percival Graves, both of whom she has almost no interaction in the films. Bernadette’s role in the films is minimal, and if the game designers were looking for a Person of Color to play a opposite Newt and Graves, it is telling that they chose Bernadette over MACUSA Madame President Seraphina Picquery, who is a much more prominent character in Fantastic Beasts and has numerous interactions with both Newt and Mr. Graves in the film. President Picquery also orders the wands to be confiscated from both of them, and these actions could easily have been adapted into gameplay.
Agency, Reward, and Augmented Reality
For those of you unfamiliar, Niantic’s primary claim to fame is their augmented reality gameplay, showcased in their most popular game Pokemon Go and also used in Wizards Unite. Whereas “virtual reality” submerses the player in a completely fictional landscape, augmented reality superimposes a fictional landscape’s elements onto reality (usually through a camera viewfinder or a google map.) Niantic’s augmented reality is so lifelike and compelling that it made international news in 2016 when two young men walked off a cliff while playing one of Niantic’s games.
Wizards Unite augments reality in two ways: the map and “magical traces,” which, when clicked, pull the player into a scene where they are presented with a Foundable/Confoundable pair with no context. Usually, one of the entities is seen as attacking or menacing the other. With no option for dialogue or further information seeking, players are required to take immediate action by firing spells at the alleged-aggressor. This game design reinforces players to either play “savior” and rescue the assumed victim Character of Color or, if the Character of Color is the alleged-aggressor, to fire a spell to strike them physically or imprison them in a bubble. After taking this action, the words “good,” “great,” “excellent,” or “masterful,” appear on the screen, boosting the player’s endorphins. If the Confoundable is successfully conquered, then bonus points and rewards are given for an encounter well done. This dichotomized setup teaches players, particularly white players, to see People of Color as either a victim or as a violent offender. It ignores the practice of de-escalation. Furthermore, it normalizes the primary way of engaging with a character of color is through the point of a weapon — their wand.
Through the augmented reality feature of the game, Wizard’s Unite’s design to encourage and reward the behavior of attacking characters of color in real-world settings is even more troubling. Through the AR of Wizard’s Unite, players can be required to and rewarded for attacking (i.e. firing their wand at) an African American medical official woman in a bedroom. This evokes a horrific parallel to the unjustified murder of Ms. Breonna Taylor. Similarly, players can also be required to and rewarded for attacking People of Color on a sidewalk. This eerily evokes the violent murders of Mr. George Floyd and Mr. Eric Garner.
Further Objectification of People of Color
Not all Characters of Color are Confoundables. Some are Foundables. Once you incapacitate/dispel a Confoundable, the corresponding Foundable is collected into an in-game book. In this way, Characters of Color that are Foundables are depersonifed even more and as they become objects to be acquired. Throughout the game, you “acquire” a black Ravenclaw, possibly Latino/Latina Hufflepuff and Slytherin, an Asian Gryffindor, and a black unnamed Ministry Administrator. This objectification is deeply troubling in a country with a history steeped in enslaving people.
Thus we encounter problematic portrayals of People of Color as both Foundables and Confoundables, which serve as non-speaking “extras” in the game. At this point, you may notice we have not mentioned any major characters who have lines and progress the plot. That is because they are all white.
Compounding the Issue: Racial Makeup of Wizard’s Unite Target Audience
As having characters who reflect your designated audience is one of the first lessons of storytellers, it is safe to say that Niantic designed Wizards Unite specifically for a white audience. If you disagree, ask yourself if they were designing for Audience Members of Color, would there be absolutely no Characters of Color with lines?
A large portion of time playing the game is spent wandering the map for game-active locations. Most of these are geotagged to specific real-world spots. In the game, there are Inns (corresponding to hotels and houses of faith in real life,) Greenhouses (public parks,) and Landmarks (monuments and points of historical interest.) At these locations, players can refill their “spell energy” which they use to interact with Confounables and Foundables. If a player runs out of spell energy, the possible playtime is limited. If you are in a rural area, especially without a car, the game is almost impossible to play for longer than 2–3 minutes at a time, perhaps once or twice a day. There are not many spontaneous encounters (based on cell-phone traffic) and even fewer opportunities to refill your spell energy. By contrast, if you live in the city, you can immerse yourself in the game world for hours. There are locations to refill your spell energy on almost every street corner, and spontaneous encounters are frequent. From this, we know that Niantic has designed the game for an urban audience, with the possible inclusion of suburban players with access to cars.
Thus all the negative portrayals and violence against of People of Color in Wizards Unite are compounded when you take into account that Niantic designed the game for white, urban players. Additionally, by designing a game where white players only have dialogue with white characters, Wizards Unite models, normalizes, and rewards racially-segregated behavior.
Additionally, for 40% of the time that game has been actively released, the USA has been under quarantine. Players have even less interaction with people outside of their immediate family. For many white players, Wizards Unite is the only interaction they have with a Person of Color- fact or fiction, for 7 out of the 17 months that the game has been actively released.
Call to Action: Petitioning Niantic
On June 3, 2020, Niantic tweeted and published online an internal memo from CEO John Hanke outlining how the video game design firm would support #BlackLivesMatter. In the memo, Hanke says that Niantic “strive[s] to make the world a better place…[and] to build positive connections with fellow human beings.” Wizards Unite, in its current form, does the opposite: it perpetuates negative stereotypes of People of Color and encourages players, particularly white players, to immerse themselves in situations where they act out as White Saviours or as aggressively policing agents against People of Color.
We are petitioning Niantic to remove the White Supremacist Narrative and Game Design in Harry Potter Wizards Unite. The petition can be found here and the demands are enumerated below:
We demand that Niantic fix Wizards Unite so it has racially equitable representation. Currently, its gameplay features deplorably racist portrayals of People of Color and encourages and rewards players to take actions in alignment with white supremacy.
Specifically, we petition Niantic to mitigate as much harm as possible by implementing the following edits to the current game design, so that it is slightly more equitable:
• Name all characters, including but not limited to Characters of Color.
• Give lines to all Confoundable Characters of Color.
• Introduce at least two Characters of Color (NPCs) who speak and contribute significantly to the game’s plot progression.
• Additionally, introduce President Picquery as a major character (with lines and significant influence on the story).
• Delete the scenes in which anyone mentally tortures characters. Specifically, delete the interactions in which the unnamed African American medical Ministry official shoots electric white spell energy at the heads of named white male characters.)
🡢Instead, include an interaction where the aforementioned Dr. Bernadette [with her last name] casts expelliarmus on Newt Scamander. (Completely delete the scene with her and Percival Graves.)
• De-weaponize the player’s wand in the game, including but not limited to when it is used against Confoundables/Characters of Color. Do not use the wand to imprison or inflict harm on Characters of Color.
• Create Foundable/Confoundable scenes in which the wand is used to heal.
• Create Foundable/Confoundable scenes in which the wand creates a shield/barrier between the two characters.
To be clear, Wizards Unite requires more substantive revisions than the previous list to make it a racially equitable game. These are easy starting points.
After consulting with Antiracism Trainer Michelle Ledder, we have the additional recommendations for Niantic’s company in order to live up to their promises to make #BlackLivesMatter: have racially equitable developer personnel levels, moving from diversity and inclusion training to anti-racism training for their game designers, and create concrete accountability structures for institutional anti-racism.
Please sign, share, and signal boost. Readers are also encouraged to post on the WizardHub forum any sections or learnings from this article so that Niantic may listen to the demands of the fans and work to eliminate the white supremacist messaging taught in Wizards Unite.
In conclusion, as white supremacy is heavily present in Wizards Unite, even with the fixing of the analyzed flaws, the game is still deeply problematic in its depictions of race. Its depictions of gender, body diversity, ableism, and even animal rights also leave many things to be desired. We, as Harry Potter fans, urge Niantic to live up to its promises and work to make amends in this game’s design and in their future games’ designs. We challenge Warner Brothers to create products that speak to the values that Harry Potter fans so loudly advocate. Harry Potter fans are dedicated to dismantling oppression, and we demand that the companies that cater to us hold themselves to a higher standard and interrogate their own products even as we interrogate the flaws in our most beloved canon and how we live our own lives.
I remember very clearly, one of the first times I played Wizards Unite. The highly-anticipated (at least highly anticipated for Potter fans) Harry Potter mobile phone game to be released by Niantic, a videogame design firm I knew from Pokemon Go (which I have never played) and Ingress (which I have.) Part of Niantic’s claim-to-fame is their ability to produce games that overlay gameplay onto google maps: to engage with the “game world,” you literally walk to locations in the “real world” and interact with game elements that are geo-tagged to be located there.
A few days into playing the game, I visited the National Gallery of Art for an exhibit on renaissance paintings. As I wandered into a different wing of photorealistic oil paintings, my attention had waned, and so I turned on the game to see if any Harry Potter creatures were geo-tagged to the museum. Several were.
I then began to surreptitiously play the game while in the sparsely populated area. I would look at a painting of the seaside while the game loaded, then battle an Erkling (a spindly, thin goblin creature.) Erkling defeated and map reloading, I turned my attention to a still life with water shimmering through a translucent glass vase, and then looked at my phone to rescue a Mooncalf (a short, stubby, blue-furred, llama-like creature with overly large eyes) from its shackled chain. I glanced up to see to portrait woman lounged on a settee with a book. I could almost smell the light dust of forgotten past and the pine oil pressed into the glowing wood of the table where her book rested. A howler harassed two goblins. I wandered by an oversized landscape painting, which was taller than me and yet so finely detailed. I could hear the ducks as they cause small splashes as they skitted across the distant lake. I could hear to munching and soft grunting of the moose in the foreground as they grazed on the forest greens.
Alternating between the flat yet layered experience of the game with its limited pixels and yet fluid movement, and the static but deeply rich and real oil paintings caused my brain to kick into a higher gear. While one would think that playing a game would distract me from the paintings, playing the game immersed me in them more. By stimulating my brain’s flow and triggering my imagination, the game opened my mind to receive and mentally create more stimuli than were present in reality.
If playing the game increased my brain activity to such an extent that static, artistic depictions felt, sounded, and even smelled more real, then what exactly is being communicated by that game, and what augmented realities are finding their way into my mind without my being aware of it?
In the coming days, I’ll publish “Wizards Dis-United: How the Harry Potter Mobile Game Augments Reality to Strengthen White Supremacy.” A colleague, Michelle Ledder, and I are premiering it as a presentation at the Chestnut Hill College Harry Potter Academic Conference this Friday, October 16, 2020.
US American reporter and translator Angelica Frey posted an article yesterday on “Sailor Moon’s Fashion from Christian Dior to Theirry Mugler” on Jezebel. This is a great read on the intersection of East Asian storytelling and graphic novels, European fashion, and the US American market in the 1990s. If just one of those topics interests you, I highly recommend her article on Jezebel.
Last week, Duden (the Merriam-Webster of Germany) upped their social media game with their ad campaign for the latest edition of the comprehensive dictionary. “Hasskommentar,” which translates to “hate-commentary,” has officially been added to the German language. Their website defines this new word as “commentary containing hatred and threats, characterized by strong rejection and hostility, especially on social networks.”
As German speakers are more empowered by their linguistic tradition to create their own words and compound words, the German language is quick to adopt new words (especially technological terms) into its formal lexicon. For example, Germans used “ich google”/”du googlest” about two years before it became common practice to verb the proper noun in American English. (I noticed this personally while living there in the 2000s.)
Hopefully, the adoption of this new word does not start a trend in other countries, as formalizing such concepts makes them more valid and stable in culture and society. On the other hand, having a formal term for this oppressive behavior may help in creating practices to deconstruct it and policies to restrain and restrict it.
A series of protests and rallies have spread across Thailand, condemning the government. The protesters, many of them high-school and university-aged young people, are using art to circumnavigate the lèse-majesté laws in place, making it a crime to defame, insult, or simply criticize the royal family. By using the images, symbols, and narratives in Harry Potter and the Hunger Games, protesters can critique a government which has acted in eerily parallel to the books’ plots:
- King Maha Vajiralongkorn was crowned King Rama X of Thailand in 2016, and later the Palace led a campaign that changed the constitution to give the king increased emergency powers.
- The Thai Crown is closely linked with the Thai military, as the king now has personal control over several influential army units and the Prime Minister previously led a military coup
- Police have increasingly harassed activists
- Nearly ten dissidents who have fled the country have “disappeared,” and at least two are confirmed dead
- Public school students face stricter behavior and personal appearance guidelines set forth by the government.
The imagery and language of Harry Potter are being used by the protestors to call out their government. Many protesters use “Wands Up” gestures using prop wands or glowing cellphone flashlights to evoke imagery of the final battle for Hogwarts against the Deatheaters in the penultimate book. Some dress in Gryffindor colors or witch/wizard robes. A few dress as Deatheaters and hoist gilded gold framed images of Lord Voldemort– gold being the color of The Crown in Thailand.
The youngest protesters also use other art forms to tell their stories. The New York Times published a photograph of high-school-aged children performing the Mockingjay Salute. Their article also explains a piece of performance art by one such child protester: she was tied to a chair, a pair of scissors on her lap. Audience members (fellow protesters) are instructed by a nearby sign to cut her hair to the government-mandated crop length– even with the bottom of her earlobe.
Hundreds of young protesters use pop culture iconography, imagery, and narratives to indirectly criticize their government that limits free speech. It is indisputable, at least in Thailand, that art continues to be a powerful tool against oppression.
Sources + Read More:
- “Thailand protesters openly criticize monarchy in Harry Potter-themed rally “ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/04/thailand-protesters-openly-criticise-monarchy-harry-potter-themed-rally?fbclid=IwAR2n3xY32sMNnSPPf2xT9X-pBhF89-KD2DOEGQa0nHEd5wM7aqZeafxcPPs
- “In Thailand, Students Take on the Military (and ‘Death Eaters’)” https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/11/world/asia/thailand-student-protest-military.html
- “Thai protesters dress as Harry Potter to denounce the government: Demonstrators are demanding constitutional reform and an end to harassment” https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/08/04/thai-protesters-dress-harry-potter-denounce-government/
Dennis “Kidd” Banda, the COO of the Zambian otaku community NerdOtaku, recently published an article on Anime News Network explaining the growing popularity of anime, cosplay, and videogaming in the East African country, located just north of Zimbabwe. The article articulates the quickly growing fan community, citing access to Netflix as the main provider since region-locking often means that other legitimate anime sources are unavailable. The article also includes a synopsis and clip of “Scuna Girl,” a Zambian horror anime that reimagines a local urban legend.
News of the Zambian community is spreading across US American anime circles. We can hope that the Zambian NerdOtaku community continues to thrive and more African anime communities gain awareness on the international scene.
- Dennis Banda’s article on Anime News Network: https://www.animenewsnetwork.com/feature/2020-07-15/a-growing-anime-fandom-in-zambia/.160984
- Zimbabwe’s NerdOtaku website: https://www.nerdotaku.org/
- “Scuna Girl” episode 1 on Youtube, courtesy of Tsubasa Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLgG1a5gBVw&ab_channel=TsubasaAnimations
- Brian Mishler’s article on the blog of J1Con: http://www.j1studios.com/?p=27317&fbclid=IwAR3-4hgPD8uAldb8vZ-3_1sT5drlOKsuKIwSGMcc3RetDoSga4JAfS0JRsM
Last week, Kpop band BTS (formerly known as Bangtan Boys and Beyond The Scene) and its fans made global headlines as they raised over $2 million in donations to the #BlackLivesMatter campaign. The band itself donated $1 million and has been vocal about denouncing racial oppression. On June 4, they tweeted, “We stand against racial discrimination. We condemn violence. You, I, and we all have the right to be respected. We will stand together. #BlackLivesMatter” (Source) James Corden even covered how BTS fans are diluting white supremacy hashtags by drowning out hate with their love of the band.
Reporter Yim Hyun-su points out in a Washington Post article that Kpop fans have a well-established history of social justice initiatives and wield social media hashtags with lighting strike power. Their social media campaigns have not only a global reach but also activate global collaboration in a matter of minutes. The online activism of Kpop fans is not to be underestimated.
Hyun-su continues to analyze why the many stories of Kpop fans mobilizing don’t get the coverage that similar stories of streaming/vlogging fans or videogame fans do. While acknowledging the often problematic landscape of fandom communities, he posits that the barrier to Kpop fans being recognized is classical sexism: the popular image of a “fangirl” is not in alignment with that of a social justice warrior.
Maybe one day, perspectives will mature to a more holistic comprehension of these fandom identities.
To read Hyun-su’s article, visit here: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2020/06/11/surprised-seeing-k-pop-fans-stand-up-black-lives-matter-you-shouldnt-be/
I’m presenting 2 panels at Awesome Con this weekend in Washington DC.
#1 Friday, 4:00 PM – “Good Omen’s Good Theology” room 140
#2 Saturday, 5:00 PM – “Supernatural: Bible Canon vs Bible Fanon” room 140 again.
Both are with Rev. Will Green from Foundry UMC. (email@example.com )
Hope to see you there!
PS Once the formal copyright comes through, we’ll have the material from these presentations published on this site.